Values and functions of testosterone

functions of testosteroneThe book offered to your attention is not intended as a guide to taking anabolic / androgenic steroids. Neither the publisher nor the authors of the book in any way disapprove or support the use of anabolic / androgenic steroids, as well as other medicinal substances in sports. Coverage of all the topics presented in the book is primarily a general information. These data do not contain medical advice, and are based solely on the results of experience achieved. The illegal acquisition of foreign medicines is completely discouraged. The inept use of these medicines can lead to adverse health effects. Every athlete intending to use them should consult a qualified physician.THE AUTHORS ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS BOOK.

Preface.

This book is much superior to the books written before it on the topic “Anabolic steroids”. The authors appeal to budding athletes and athletes with ambitions who have gathered a wealth of experience in the use of steroids. To satisfy this circle of readers, the authors have chosen a very special way of presenting the material.

The reader will receive a completely complete and up-to-date review of steroids used in sports and commercially available. A detailed description of these drugs will help understand the diversity of their effects on the human body. The practice-oriented description is complemented by coverage of such important factors as “training” and “nutrition.” In conclusion, general, but thorough knowledge of steroids is given. The rejection of the medical-academic style of describing the facts, which will make the reader more distracted than informed, should also contribute to a good understanding of the information in the book.

The original purpose of writing this book was to make the general topic of anabolic steroids understandable for athletes by analyzing the steroid situation in bodybuilding so that athletes, on the one hand, were capable of correct decisions and actions, and on the other, were able to solve their own problems regarding the use of anabolic steroids. Once again, the publisher and authors would clearly like to draw attention to the fact that anabolic / androgenic steroids should never be used without medical monitoring of the athlete’s health.

Values ​​and functions of testosterone.

Although we all wanted to avoid in this book a conversation on serious theoretical and scientific and technical topics, so that it would not turn out that the book would look more like a textbook on biology than a useful source of information when taking pharmaceuticals, it is necessary to make some exceptions first. Since testosterone is the basis of almost all anabolic / androgenic steroids, every athlete must have basic knowledge of this hormone. Everything that is written in this chapter about testosterone relates to varying degrees of anabolic / androgenic steroids. Anyone who carefully reads this short introductory chapter will be well versed in the many qualities discussed in the pages of this book of steroids.

This chapter begins the practical part of the book. We have already tried to briefly describe, as far as possible, the following topics. Special attention is paid here to a detailed, detailed description of anabolic / androgenic steroids and other pharmaceutical preparations used by athletes.

The medications listed are in alphabetical order. And since each active chemical substance is often present in many very different preparations, we, as a rule, give here the brand name of the preparation. In some exceptional cases, the very name of the chemical in the product is listed here in our alphabetical list. After the name of the drug itself is always indicated the active substance specified in the list of medication. Under the heading “trade names” is a list of drugs sold in Europe, which certainly contain in their composition the above-mentioned active chemical substance. In addition, the quantities of this substance in the preparation, the release form, the names of the manufacturer and the country of the manufacturer are indicated. Then follows a detailed description of the drugs.

Explanations:

Testosterone is the most important representative of male sex hormones – androgens. The basis for the formation of this group of hormones is cholesterol in the body. The production of androgens in the male body is done by the sex cells of the male gonads (testicles). As a final product, testosterone occurs, which performs three functions in the body:

  1. He is responsible for the manifestation of the secondary sexual characteristics of the male body (increased body hair, breaking the voice, increased activity of sweat glands, penis formation, aggressiveness, sexual behavior, libido, etc.) and for the maturation of sperm. All of the above refers to the androgenic function of testosterone. What distinguishes men from women is the amount of testosterone produced daily by the male and female body. In the body of men, 4–10 mg of testosterone is produced daily, women — 0.15– 0.4 mg, that is, 1/25 part.
  2. Promotes protein biosynthesis. And for this are already responsible for the anabolic quality of testosterone. With its help, accelerated muscle growth, enhanced formation of red blood cells, faster tissue regeneration, shortened recovery period after injuries and past diseases are achieved. Improves overall metabolism, activates fat burning.
  3. Braking of the periodal regular circle. This circle covers the reflex arc Hypothalamus – Hypophis – Testicles, which regulates the level of testosterone production in the body. If the concentration of testosterone in the blood is high, the testes signal to the hypothalamus to produce less luteinizing releasing hormone. And through this, the pituitary gland is transmitted information about a smaller release of luteinizing hormone gonodropins and follicular stimulating hormone. As a result, the germ cells of the testes reduce the level of testosterone production.

Interestingly, the female sex hormone Estradiol also has the effect of a gonodal regular circle. Even small amounts of this hormone have an effect on the hypothalamus, which is expressed, as you already understood, in reducing the amount of testosterone produced by the testes. This information is especially important for athletes – bodybuilders who use steroids, which easily turn into estrogen in the body. For the first time, testosterone was isolated by scientists from the bulls’ testicles and obtained in crystalline form in 1935. In the 1940s, injectable testosterone was produced in large quantities in Europe in order to speed up the healing process of patients with dystrophy, especially prisoners of war.

It is possible that at this time testosterone was also used against German soldiers in order to increase their aggressiveness. In the late forties, the Russian weightlifters discovered a new quality of exogenous testosterone: its ability to stimulate achievement, which then allowed it to set more and more new records.

General information about steroids.

Today, almost everyone with the word “steroids” immediately thinks of anabolic steroids, known to amateurs under the name “anabolic”. At the same time, it is often forgotten that “steroids” is the common name for a whole group of various steroid hormones. Among them are the hormones of the adrenal cortex (gluco- and mineralcorticoid), female sex hormones (estrogens and gestagens), and also male sex hormones (androgens). In this book, we will focus exclusively on the latter – androgens. With their most important representative, testosterone, the reader has already met in the previous chapter. Therefore, from now on, the word “steroids” will mean anabolic-androgenic steroids.

Anabolic and androgenic steroids are synthetic synthesized preparations that are similar in some of their qualities to the natural male hormone androgen, testosterone. The main reason for their development was the intention to create a drug that would have high anabolic qualities of testosterone, but at the same time exclude its strong androgenic capabilities. “Great efforts have been made to create a pure anabolic with no admixture of androgenic” side effects “(Kakhakian, 1976; Kryuskemper, 1965).” (Quote from “Doping – illicit drugs in sports”, p. 51, Dirk Klazing, Manfred Donike, and others.). To realize this idea, huge changes were made to the steroid molecule. The newly created steroids differ at the time either by an understated anabolic androgenic function, or have increased efficacy against both qualities. Some steroids received such structural changes that led to even higher androgenicity and low anabolic activity. This explains the differences in action, efficacy, side effects of existing steroids. The creation of a pure anabolic, where the anabolic and androgenic qualities of the steroid would be completely separated, failed. Therefore, the so-called anabolic steroid (anabolic) has a certain amount of androgenic effects, and vice versa, the androgenic steroid (androgen) has anabolic qualities. This explains the differences in action, efficacy, side effects of existing steroids. The creation of a pure anabolic, where the anabolic and androgenic qualities of the steroid would be completely separated, failed. Therefore, the so-called anabolic steroid (anabolic) has a certain amount of androgenic effects, and vice versa, the androgenic steroid (androgen) has anabolic qualities. This explains the differences in action, efficacy, side effects of existing steroids. The creation of a pure anabolic, where the anabolic and androgenic qualities of the steroid would be completely separated, failed. Therefore, the so-called anabolic steroid (anabolic) has a certain amount of androgenic effects, and vice versa, the androgenic steroid (androgen) has anabolic qualities.

And so you think that for the rapid acquisition of strength and muscle building is better to use an anabolic steroid with minimal androgenicity. Nothing like that, because the name “anabolic steroid” does not tell you anything about the strength of the anabolic effect, we only know that the anabolic-androgenic ratio of the initial testosterone — the ancestor is shifted here. To determine this ratio and (determine) the steroid as anabolic or androgen, testosterone serves as a parameter. So , steroids, in which androgenic qualities are reduced, are defined as “anabolic steroids”, and those with androgenic qualities are higher – “androgenic steroids.” What is the problem? The fact that a decrease in androgenic ac ivnosti preparation invariably entails a reduction and its anabolic qualities therefore, the anabolic is less androgic than the original testosterone, but at the same time it has lower anabolic qualities. When reading the following chapters, the reader will understand that the so-called “mass steroids” come exclusively from the group of androgenic steroids, where, along with enhanced androgenic qualities, there are very strong anabolic. “… the best androgen, or rather testosterone, is the most important anabolic for a man.” (from “Doping – illicit drugs in sports”, Dirk Klazing, Manfred Donike, etc.) The athlete is faced with a dilemma of what to choose, because Androgenic steroids are not only strong in terms of their anabolic qualities, but unfortunately they have a lot of side effects. It follows: the more effective the steroid, the more androgenic it is, and

Therefore, we should not agree with the often heard today opinion that anabolic steroids cause persistent, non-reversible damage in their host. This is partly true, androgenic steroids are also responsible for most side effects. But the general opinion: “Steroids destroy the liver” is absurd, because steroid steroid strife.

The first anabolic / androgenic steroids officially entered the trade in the early 50s. And a decade later, most of the drugs sold today were on the market. Since recently, only a small number of new drugs have emerged, these above mentioned are only relatively referred to as old ones. Of course, for all these years some changes have been made, especially in relation to the steroid sector of the drug. Many drugs are withdrawn from trade, some have arisen in other countries under a different name and are being sold again, in the 80s several new ones were added. Steroids are still considered the most effective means to improve athletic performance. Back in the 50s, they firmly won their place in the world of sports. A significant role in the emergence of the relationship between steroids and sports played the introduction of dianabol, oral steroid, which was created by the team doctor, American weightlifters Dr. John Ziegler, in his collaboration with the pharmaceutical company C1BA In 1956. This drug and its followers found their place in the late 50s, first among weight-lifters, then widely spread in all other sports areas. Then its lightning spread in the 60-70-ies contributed to the movement “wobuling”. Increasingly, they began to apply and athletes. In 1974, the International Olympic Committee decided to include anabolic steroids in the general doping list. then widespread in all other sports areas. Then its lightning spread in the 60-70-ies contributed to the movement “wobuling”. Increasingly, they began to apply and athletes. In 1974, the International Olympic Committee decided to include anabolic steroids in the general doping list. then widespread in all other sports areas. Then its lightning spread in the 60-70-ies contributed to the movement “wobuling”. Increasingly, they began to apply and athletes. In 1974, the International Olympic Committee decided to include anabolic steroids in the general doping list.

“The 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal were the first to be monitored for anabolic steroids.” (from “Doping in Sport” Zeling, Pollert, Nakfort). Today, there is an unprecedented spread of these medicines, as stated in his book “Records with the help of doping?” Melvin X. Williams: “Anabolic steroids are a group of medications that look like an epidemic in sports.” It is estimated that more than a million Americans’ take anabolic steroids, including athletes and athletes of all age groups, ranging from professionals to teenagers – schoolchildren. The black market has grown, earning from the steroid trade an annual income of about 100 mil. $. “One of the reasons for the increasing use of anabolic / androgenic steroids is the growing popularity of bodybuilding. It is clear that bodybuilding is in close connection with the spread of steroids. Consuming them is directly proportional to the growing love of bodybuilding. When bodybuilding entered the arena in the 70s, steroids became even more famous. In the 80s when this sport became even more widespread, it happened with steroids. At the end of this decade, when bodybuilding became popular in universities, this also affected steroids. “(Anabolic Handbook, 6th edition, 1991, W.N. Phillips.) And while we admire the muscles of the human body, while using anabolic / androgenic steroids have nothing to oppose from natural drugs, it is impossible to achieve failure of athletes from taking these pharmaceuticals. The popularity of Clenbuterol shows that it helps athletes reach their goals faster. And if growth hormones were on sale at reasonable prices, then they would be as widely used as steroids.

Still, steroids are not a miracle cure, because its effectiveness depends on factors such as training, nutrition, mood, genetic predisposition of each individual athlete. The decisive factor is the last of these, showing how an athlete corresponds to a particular steroid of genetics.

Method of exposure to steroids.

The physiology of anabolic / androgenic steroids is a complex subject. An exact description of all biochemical processes occurring in the human body when taking steroids is impossible. Nevertheless, we would like to give the reader a general overview of these processes, since some of their knowledge and understanding is essential. Since the athlete is always interested only in stimulating the attainment of steroid qualities; we want to talk in this chapter mainly about their effects on the muscle cell.

Steroids are either administered intramuscularly or taken orally. When injected, the substance enters directly into the blood, in the form of a pill goes through the gastrointestinal tract to the liver, where it is either completely or partially destroyed or enters the blood in its original state. Accepted steroid enters the blood in the form of numerous steroid molecules that move along the bloodstream throughout the body. Each steroid molecule carries the information that it must transmit to certain cellular bodies. The cells provided for this have different types of receptors on their outer membrane. One of them is a steroid receptor, which is found in large quantities in muscle cells. Steroid receptors and steroid molecules are the same size and shape: they fit together like a key to a lock. The steroid receptor takes a steroid molecule, passing all other types of molecules past. The same happens with other types of receptors that do not perceive steroid molecules, because intended only for “their” molecules. When the steroid receptor and the steroid molecule combine into a complex, the molecule is capable of transmitting information to the muscle cell. It should be noted that the majority of steroid molecules in the blood are bound, forming compounds with proteins: sex hormone binding globulin. This means that 98% of the steroid molecules in the blood are bound and only 1-2% in the free state. The latter are precisely related to steroid molecules capable of forming a steroid-receptor complex. Related steroid molecules are the passive part, since in such a state, a muscle cell will not perceive them. For the sake of accuracy, let’s say that this percentage varies.

The formed steroid receptor complex is directed to the cell nucleus, where it joins certain segments on DNA nucleic acid segments (dysoribonucleic acids). Then transcription follows, i.e. DNA is imprinted. The resulting ribonucleic acid leaves the cell nucleus and in the cytoplasm joins the RNA located here, where an increase in protein synthesis occurs through translation. In combination with intense anabolic workouts with weight lifting, this leads to a transverse increase in muscle cells (muscle hypertrophy). Enhanced protein synthesis is considered to be the main effect of steroids on the muscle cell, while steroid molecules also carry other important information for athletes. Much says in favor of that steroids also have a strong anti-catabolic effect. Thanks to them, the percentage of protein degraded in the muscle cell is reduced. In addition, steroid molecules block cortisol receptors located on the membrane of the muscle cell. And the body’s cortisol, a strong catabolic hormone, loses its ability and the muscle cell does not lose protein.

Another advantage of steroids is that they increase creatine phosphate (CF) synthesis in the muscle cell. CF plays a crucial role in the restoration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a prerequisite for all muscle movements, because is a combustible material required by the cage to perform work. ATP accumulates in the muscle cell and, if required, is converted into adenosine diphosphate. This process releases energy that allows the muscle cell to work. KF is also required for the reverse process of ADP in ATP. The more of it, the faster this recovery goes and the more ATP is at the disposal of the muscle cell. In practice, this means that the muscle becomes stronger, but not more. Anyone who has already used the steroid “Oxandrolone” at least once, knows that this drug affects mainly muscle strength. The fact, what it causes in the muscle cell is increased KF synthesis. Another factor that is beneficial for athletes is that steroids accumulate carbohydrates in the form of glycogen in the muscle cell. This process goes along with the increased accumulation of fluid, which, together with the increased volume of the muscle, entails an improvement in the endurance of the muscles, as well as an enhanced surge of strength. Steroids reduce the production of endogenous insulin, because a muscle cell can, with their intake, absorb nutrients (carbohydrates in the form of glycogen and protein in the form of amino acids) to a lesser extent depending on insulin. This gives athletes the opportunity to reduce the percentage of fat and improve muscle hardness, because Insulin, along with its high-potency anabolic hormone quality, turns glucose into glycerol and, ultimately, into triglyceride, which leads to the growth of fat cells. Another factor that is beneficial for athletes is that steroids accumulate carbohydrates in the form of glycogen in the muscle cell. This process goes along with the increased accumulation of fluid, which, together with the increased volume of the muscle, entails an improvement in the endurance of the muscles, as well as an enhanced surge of strength. Steroids reduce the production of endogenous insulin, because the muscle cell can, with their intake, absorb nutrients (carbohydrates in the form of glycogen and protein in the form of amino acids) to a lesser extent depending on insulin. This gives athletes the opportunity to reduce the percentage of fat and improve muscle hardness, because Insulin, along with its high-potency anabolic hormone quality, turns glucose into glycerol and, ultimately, into triglyceride, which leads to the growth of fat cells. Another factor that is beneficial for athletes is that steroids accumulate carbohydrates in the form of glycogen in the muscle cell. This process goes along with the increased accumulation of fluid, which, together with the increased volume of the muscle, entails an improvement in the endurance of the muscles, as well as an enhanced surge of strength. Steroids reduce the production of endogenous insulin, because the muscle cell can, with their intake, absorb nutrients (carbohydrates in the form of glycogen and protein in the form of amino acids) to a lesser extent depending on insulin. This gives athletes the opportunity to reduce the percentage of fat and improve muscle hardness, because Insulin, along with its high-potency anabolic hormone quality, turns glucose into glycerol and, ultimately, into triglyceride, which leads to the growth of fat cells. – The fact that steroids accumulate carbohydrates in the muscle cell in the form of glycogen. This process goes along with the increased accumulation of fluid, which, together with the increased volume of the muscle, entails an improvement in the endurance of the muscles, as well as an enhanced surge of strength. Steroids reduce the production of endogenous insulin, because the muscle cell can, with their intake, absorb nutrients (carbohydrates in the form of glycogen and protein in the form of amino acids) to a lesser extent depending on insulin. This gives athletes the opportunity to reduce the percentage of fat and improve muscle hardness, because Insulin, along with its high-potency anabolic hormone quality, turns glucose into glycerol and, ultimately, into triglyceride, which leads to the growth of fat cells. – The fact that steroids accumulate carbohydrates in the muscle cell in the form of glycogen. This process goes along with the increased accumulation of fluid, which, together with the increased volume of the muscle, entails an improvement in the endurance of the muscles, as well as an enhanced surge of strength. Steroids reduce the production of endogenous insulin, because the muscle cell can, with their intake, absorb nutrients (carbohydrates in the form of glycogen and protein in the form of amino acids) to a lesser extent depending on insulin. This gives athletes the opportunity to reduce the percentage of fat and improve muscle hardness, because Insulin, along with its high-potency anabolic hormone quality, turns glucose into glycerol and, ultimately, into triglyceride, which leads to the growth of fat cells. This process goes along with the increased accumulation of fluid, which, together with the increased volume of the muscle, entails an improvement in the endurance of the muscles, as well as an enhanced surge of strength. Steroids reduce the production of endogenous insulin, because the muscle cell can, with their intake, absorb nutrients (carbohydrates in the form of glycogen and protein in the form of amino acids) to a lesser extent depending on insulin. This gives athletes the opportunity to reduce the percentage of fat and improve muscle hardness, because Insulin, along with its high-potency anabolic hormone quality, turns glucose into glycerol and, ultimately, into triglyceride, which leads to the growth of fat cells. This process goes along with the increased accumulation of fluid, which, together with the increased volume of the muscle, entails an improvement in the endurance of the muscles, as well as an enhanced surge of strength. Steroids reduce the production of endogenous insulin, because the muscle cell can, with their intake, absorb nutrients (carbohydrates in the form of glycogen and protein in the form of amino acids) to a lesser extent depending on insulin. This gives athletes the opportunity to reduce the percentage of fat and improve muscle hardness, because Insulin, along with its high-potency anabolic hormone quality, turns glucose into glycerol and, ultimately, into triglyceride, which leads to the growth of fat cells. the muscle cell can, with their intake, absorb nutrients (carbohydrates in the form of glycogen and protein in the form of amino acids) to a lesser extent depending on insulin. This gives athletes the opportunity to reduce the percentage of fat and improve muscle hardness, because Insulin, along with its high-potency anabolic hormone quality, turns glucose into glycerol and, ultimately, into triglyceride, which leads to the growth of fat cells. the muscle cell can, with their intake, absorb nutrients (carbohydrates in the form of glycogen and protein in the form of amino acids) to a lesser extent depending on insulin. This gives athletes the opportunity to reduce the percentage of fat and improve muscle hardness, because Insulin, along with its high-potency anabolic hormone quality, turns glucose into glycerol and, ultimately, into triglyceride, which leads to the growth of fat cells.

Anyone who has tried steroids at least once knows that during a workout in the muscles involved there is a clear “pump effect”, which professionals call a “steroid pump.” The fact is that steroids increase blood volume and the number of red blood cells in the human body. Muscles get a more volumetric appearance. Along with these benefits, increased blood flow to the muscle cell increases the delivery of nutrients to it. Significantly high blood volume is provided by such androgenic steroids as Dianabol, Testosterone and, above all, Anadrol, which is partly expressed in the strong, even painful effect of the pump during exercise. Related to this phenomenon of enhanced oxygen supply to the body is often used by runners on medium and short distances. After the steroid-receptor complex has fulfilled its duty in the cell nucleus, the steroid molecule returns to the bloodstream and either for some time becomes suitable for the function described above, or turns into an inactive molecule and is ultimately excreted from the body through urine. Not all steroid molecules in the blood immediately bind to the sex hormone binding globulin or are in a free, active state. Some of them are immediately used by the body in the process of metabolism and derived from it. Another part of the body can be turned into female sex hormones – estrogen. This phenomenon is called aromatization and at first glance seems something unthinkable. But, if we consider the structure of the male sex hormone testosterone and the female Estradiol, It is striking that they are very similar. The body easily copes with the task (development) of the necessary structural changes in the molecule by means of entsym. Some steroid molecules are converted, like separate endogenous and exogenous parts of testosterone, to dihydrotestosterone (DNT). It has a greater chemical affinity for muscle cell receptors than testosterone itself, and therefore some experts believe that dihydrotestosterone is a more effective hormone compared to both male and female sex hormones, but it also has a high binding potential in relation to receptors (of the thyroid gland) of the sebaceous glands and their hair follicles. Interestingly, it can not turn into estrogen. In the end, all these molecules are excreted from the body through urine. that they are very similar. The body easily copes with the task (development) of the necessary structural changes in the molecule by means of entsym. Some steroid molecules are converted, like separate endogenous and exogenous parts of testosterone, to dihydrotestosterone (DNT). It has a greater chemical affinity for muscle cell receptors than testosterone itself, and therefore some experts believe that dihydrotestosterone is a more effective hormone compared to both male and female sex hormones, but it also has a high binding potential in relation to receptors (of the thyroid gland) of the sebaceous glands and their hair follicles. Interestingly, it can not turn into estrogen. In the end, all these molecules are excreted from the body through urine. that they are very similar. The body easily copes with the task (development) of the necessary structural changes in the molecule by means of entsym. Some steroid molecules are converted, like separate endogenous and exogenous parts of testosterone, to dihydrotestosterone (DNT). It has a greater chemical affinity for muscle cell receptors than testosterone itself, and therefore some experts believe that dihydrotestosterone is a more effective hormone compared to both male and female sex hormones, but it also has a high binding potential in relation to receptors (of the thyroid gland) of the sebaceous glands and their hair follicles. Interestingly, it can not turn into estrogen. In the end, all these molecules are excreted from the body through urine. The body easily copes with the task (development) of the necessary structural changes in the molecule by means of entsym. Some steroid molecules are converted, like separate endogenous and exogenous parts of testosterone, to dihydrotestosterone (DNT). It has a greater chemical affinity for muscle cell receptors than testosterone itself, and therefore some experts believe that dihydrotestosterone is a more effective hormone compared to both male and female sex hormones, but it also has a high binding potential in relation to receptors (of the thyroid gland) of the sebaceous glands and their hair follicles. Interestingly, it can not turn into estrogen. In the end, all these molecules are excreted from the body through urine. The body easily copes with the task (development) of the necessary structural changes in the molecule by means of entsym. Some steroid molecules are converted, like separate endogenous and exogenous parts of testosterone, to dihydrotestosterone (DNT). It has a greater chemical affinity for muscle cell receptors than testosterone itself, and therefore some experts believe that dihydrotestosterone is a more effective hormone compared to both male and female sex hormones, but at the same time it also has a high binding potential in relation to receptors (of the thyroid gland) of the sebaceous glands and their hair follicles. Interestingly, it can not turn into estrogen. In the end, all these molecules are excreted from the body through urine.

We are aware that when reading this chapter, one question or another remains unseen for you and that not everything has become immediately clear and understandable due to a pile of complex information. Nevertheless, the athlete should be given a certain view on the processes occurring in the human body when taking steroids so that the different qualities and types of effects of the preparations described below become clear.